A satellite galaxy is a smaller companion galaxy that travels on bound orbits within the gravitational potential of a more massive and luminous host galaxy (primary galaxy). Satellite galaxies and their constituents are bound to their host galaxy, in the same way that planets within our own solar system are gravitationally bound to the Sun. While most satellite galaxies are dwarf galaxies, satellite galaxies of large galaxy clusters can be much more massive. The Milky Way is orbited by about fifty satellite galaxies, the largest of which is the Large Magellanic Cloud.
ΛCDM model of formation of satellite galaxies is based on the premise that the observed large-scale structure is the result of a bottom-up hierarchical process that began after the recombination epoch in which electrically neutral hydrogen atoms were formed as a result of free electrons and protons binding together.
As the ratio of neutral hydrogen to free protons and electrons grew, so did fluctuations in the baryonic matter density. These fluctuations rapidly grew to the point that they became comparable to dark matter density fluctuations. Moreover, the smaller mass fluctuations grew to nonlinearity, became virialized (i.e. reached gravitational equilibrium), and were then hierarchically clustered within successively larger bound systems.
Globular clusters should not be mistaken for satellite galaxies. Satellite galaxies are not only more extended and diffuse compared to globular clusters, but are also enshrouded in massive dark matter halos that are thought to have been endowed to them during the formation process.
Galaxies are mostly composed of empty space, interstellar gas and dust, and therefore galaxy mergers do not necessarily involve collisions between objects from one galaxy and objects from the other, however, these events generally result in much more massive galaxies.
Satellite galaxies orbiting in the dark matter halo experience dynamical friction and consequently descend deeper into the gravitational potential of their host as a result of orbital decay. Throughout the course of this descent, stars in the outer region of the satellite are steadily stripped away due to tidal forces from the host galaxy. This process, which is an example of a minor merger, continues until the satellite is completely disrupted and consumed by the host galaxies. Evidence of this destructive process can be observed in stellar debris streams around distant galaxies.
Classification of satellite galaxies:
- Dwarf irregular satellite galaxies- Dwarf irregular satellite galaxies are characterized by their chaotic and asymmetric appearance, low gas fractions, high star formation rate and low metallicity.
- Dwarf elliptical satellite galaxies- Dwarf elliptical satellite galaxies are characterized by their oval appearance on the sky, disordered motion of constituent stars, moderate to low metallicity, low gas fractions and old stellar population.
- Dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies- Dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies are characterized by their diffuse appearance, low surface brightness, high mass-to-light ratio (i.e. dark matter dominated), low metallicity, low gas fractions and old stellar population.
- Transitional types- As a result of minor mergers and environmental effects, some dwarf galaxies are classified as intermediate or transitional type satellite galaxies.
Moreover, satellites can also collide with their host galaxy resulting in a minor merger (i.e. merger event between galaxies of significantly different masses). On the other hand, satellites can also merge with one another resulting in a major merger (i.e. merger event between galaxies of comparable masses).